The 840-mile Brazos River was both friend and foe to settlers.
Like many other West Texas communities created with a coming rail line, Peacock developed in conjunction with the Tamford & Northwestern Railway.
In 1876 during an international demand for buffalo hides, Charles Rath (1836-1902) founded this town. He opened the Rath, Lee & Reynolds Mercantile Store.
Stonewall County was created in 1876 by the State Legislature, but the area was only sparsely settled by cattle ranchers before the turn of the century.
Early inhabitants of this area were Comanche and Kiowa Indians whose campsites were situated around four dolomite hills called Medicine Mounds and known for their healing properties